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American Archaeology Magazine Winter 2016 is Here!

AA winter 2016-17 Cover. Rediscovering the Alamo

The most recent issue of American Archaeology Magazine, WINTER 2016, is now available!

  • COVER: A researcher operates a ground-penetrating radar machine at the Alamo in search of buried artifacts and features.
  • Credit: Reimagine The Alamo


An archaeological project is playing an important role in an effort to make this iconic site more interesting to tourists.

A Hohokam rock art study takes the unusual approach of examining not only the images, but also their surroundings.

For years this Mississippian site was thought to be a political capital, but recently some researchers have arrived at a different conclusion.

Archaeologists have recently discovered the first permanent European colony along Florida’s Gulf Coast.

Experts are struggling to develop a plausible colonization model from the latest archaeological and genetic evidence.

New Acquisitions:

The McCarty Mound could offer a glimpse of the American Bottom’s prehistory.

The Meyer Pottery Kiln contains information about nineteenth- and twentieth-century ceramics production.

Get your Copy of WINTER 2016 Now! Receive a subscription to American Archaeology Magazine with a $30 annual donation. Please visit our Membership page for details on how you can become a member.

Also available at Newsstands and Bookstores near you.

Browse Articles Summaries from our last issue, FALL 2016.  Explore Back Issues. Back issues, 2 years old or older, are available online to search and download.

PHOTO TOUR | 2019 San Juan River Tour

Travel along with our recent tour group as they explore ruins and rock art along the San Juan River in Utah on the Sold Out 2019 San Juan River Tour.

Scroll through the slider below for a virtual tour, and check out our latest tour schedule to find out how you can join the next adventure! 

David Grant Noble, our archaeological interpreter, explains the enigmatic Hovenweep ruins.

Hovenweep is known for its many towers that reach to three stories or more.

The masonry at Hovenweep is in the Mesa Verde style and dates to the 13th century A.D.

A wet spring produced many wildflowers, including this barrel cactus.

Huckleberry Ruin perched on a canyon rim is an outlier of Hovenweep.

Our crew readies the rafts for the four-day trip down the San Juan River.

Inflatable kayaks add some excitement to our trip.

We hike to 16-room house, located in an alcove high above the river. It was never occupied.

The Ancestral Puebloans carved steps in the canyon wall to get to settlements on the river.

David discusses amazing petroglyphs at Butler Wash, some of the most impressive in the Southwest.

These petroglyphs date to the early Basketmaker period, around 2000 years ago.

These figures may recount the experiences of shamans.

David talks about the River House cliff dwelling that dates to the 13th century.

At the NA granary at River House was used to store food.

We hike into Chinle Wash. The alcove contains a cliff dwelling.

Eight granaries in Chinle Wash were used to store food. They are only accessible to the agile climbers.

Baseball man is a colorful pictograph in the canyon.

We relax at camp on the river. Our guides prepare delicious meals.

Faster water is fun, but we have no dangerous rapids.

We see many desert bighorn sheep in the lower canyon, including these rams.

On the river.

Near the end of our trip we pass Mexican Hat Rock.

SUMMER 2019 | Spirituality And Big Data

The following is an article excerpt from the Summer 2019 Issue of American Archaeology MagazineBecome a member to subscribe and read the full issue! 

By Gayle Keck

Cover Photo: This small ceramic jar from Cahokia is incised with motifs suggestive of marine shells, wind, and water. It was likely used to dispense special drinks, including a ritual caffeinated tea known as the black drink.  |  Credit Courtesy Of ISAS

John Lennon famously urged us to imagine “no religion.” And for decades, archaeologists hummed a version of that entreaty—avoiding the inclination to interpret religious practices from objects or landscapes. But in recent years, a group of archaeologists has been singing a slightly different tune. Some of their findings appear in the book Archaeology & Ancient Religion in the American Midcontinent, edited by Brad Koldehoff, chief archaeologist for the Illinois Department of Transportation, and Timothy Pauketat, an archaeologist at the University of Illinois and director of the Illinois State Archaeological Survey (ISAS). The book honors the pioneering work of Thomas Emerson, the retired director of ISAS and an emeritus professor at the University of Illinois.

“What we were trying to do in this book,” Pauketat said, “is not just theorize, but to take a whole series of archaeologists and break up the analyses in terms of different things, places, and contexts, and ask them to think about the spirituality of that place or context.” Their research was focused on the American Bottom, an area of low-lying land that follows the Mississippi River in western Illinois, as well as on other sites in Illinois, Wisconsin, and Ohio. “We think we’re sitting on one of the regions where we have enough (data) that you can start rethinking things,” Pauketat added. “Other places in the world don’t have big data like this.”

This figurine portrays a goddess pouring liquid from a marine-shell dipper. Watery realms were often understood to be portals to, or barriers between, upper and lower worlds, the latter being a place of feminine lifeforces and agricultural productivity.  |Credit Courtesy Of ISAS
This figurine found in a religious building near Cahokia represent a goddess associated with agricultural fertility. Plant stalks emerge from her palms and serpentine-like vines are wrapped around her head.  | Credit Courtesy Of ISAS
In the early 2000s researchers investigated the ceremonial core of Cahokia’s East St. Louis Precinct.  |  Credit Courtesy Of ISAS
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee excavators work in Mound 72 in the late 1960s. They revealed the stratigraphy of one of the sub-mounds under Mound 72 that covered ritual burial pits that contained sacrificial victims.  | Credit: Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site

Much of that data has been collected as a result of cultural resource management (CRM) digs that started in the 1950s. “Illinois stands out by having a strong state law,” Koldehoff said, “as well as complying with the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966.” That act requires an assessment of the potential damage to historic sites—and efforts to mitigate that damage—by any project involving federal funds or permits. Koldehoff works closely with the ISAS, which operates as part of the Prairie Research Institute at the University of Illinois. “We think of people who build things as the destroyers of archaeology,” Emerson said, “but the Department of Transportation has been really proactive, thinking about the impact their projects have. They’ve taken a standup position to mitigate impact.”

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SUMMER 2019 | Glen Canyon Then and Now

The following is an article excerpt from the Summer 2019 Issue of American Archaeology MagazineBecome a member to subscribe and read the full issue! 

By David Malakoff

Cover Photo: Erik Stanfield of the National Park Service (wearing sunglasses) and Jeffrey Burns of the  Museum of Northern Arizona compare the current condition of Doll Ruin to a photo of the site taken in 1978.  | Credit: NPS Photo by Museum of Northern Arizona

In the spring of 1978, the National Park Service (NPS) dispatched scuba divers to an unusual destination: a remote canyon in the high desert of southeastern Utah. But there was method to their seeming madness. The divers were part of a research team studying how the creation of Lake Powell, a huge artificial created by the Glen Canyon dam on the Colorado River, had affected some of the region’s many archaeological sites, including several that were drowned deep beneath the lake’s waters.

A researcher documents pictographs at Doll Ruin in 1959 (above).
B/W Photo courtesy of the Natural History Museum of Utah (UMNH)  

Museum of Northern Arizona archaeologist Jeffrey Burns was unable to find the pictographs when he visited the site in 2019.
2019 NPS Photo Courtesy of the Museum of Northern Arizona

In 1959, the site Oven Alcove had a masonry room, a granary, and a retaining wall (above).
B/W Photo courtesy of the Natural History Museum of Utah (UMNH)  

This 2019 photo revealed that all the masonry structures had been destroyed. Stones from the collapsed structures are seen in the lower right corner. 
2019 NPS Photo Courtesy of the Museum of Northern Arizona

One of the team’s targets was Doll Ruin, a set of small alcoves tucked beneath the towering sandstone walls of Moqui Canyon. Archaeologists had first documented the site about twenty years earlier, determining it had been occupied during the Pueblo III period, which lasted from roughly A.D. 1150 to 1300. The Puebloans had left a prominent footprint, including hefty stone walls and large, human-like figures drawn on the cliff faces. Historically, the pictographs, dwellings, and storage rooms sat high above the nearby Colorado River. But in 1963, after engineers completed the 710-foot-high Glen Canyon Dam across the Colorado, the waters of what would become Lake Powell began filling Moqui Canyon and creeping up toward the nearly thousand-year-old ruins. When the NPS research team arrived, much of Doll Ruin sat fifty feet below the lake’s surface.

The divers weren’t sure what they’d find when they plunged into the frigid, fifty-degree water to inspect the sunken ruins. Inundation and churning waves had “obliterated” several other sites they had inspected, the team later wrote. So they weren’t surprised to discover that stones had toppled off some of the submerged masonry walls, leaving truncated bases bracketed by rubble. Remarkably, however, the pictographs were “still intact and in good condition,” although the divers had to wipe away layers of silt and algae to see them.

Now, some forty years after those dives and sixty years after Doll Ruin was documented, archaeologists have again revisited the site to assess its condition.

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SUMMER 2019 | Touring Ancient Art Museums

ummer 2019 - Touring Ancient Museums T5

The following is an article excerpt from the Summer 2019 Issue of American Archaeology MagazineBecome a member to subscribe and read the full issue! 

By Tamara Jager Stewart

The Southwest is world-renowned for its abundance of spectacular, well-preserved rock art, and some of the most remarkable rock art sites are in New Mexico and Arizona. The following places offer some of the best petroglyphs and pictographs to be found in this region. These amazing images date from the Archaic through the Historic periods, and they were made by Native Americans, early Spanish explorers and settlers, and Anglo settlers. The rock art is rather easy to get to and in all but two places can be seen via self-guided tours.

Petroglyphs at Three Rivers Petroglyphs site  |  Credit: BLM
La Cieneguilla features Rio Grande-style petroglyphs |  Credit: BLM
Ancestral Puebloan petroglyphs on side of rockshelter at Canyon del Muerto, Canyon de Chelly National Monument, AZ..  |  Credit: Tamara Jager Stewart, 2019
Una Vida petroglyphs at Chaco Canyon National Historical Park, AZ | Credit: Steven Koczan
ummer 2019 - Touring Ancient Museums T5
COVER PHOTO: Hand petroglyphs at Piedras Marcadas, Petroglyph National Monument, NM.  | Credit: Tamara Jager Stewart, 2019

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SUMMER 2019 | Friends, Followers, And Retweets

Summer 2019 - Friends followers and retweets S1

The following is an article excerpt from the Summer 2019 Issue of American Archaeology MagazineBecome a member to subscribe and read the full issue! 

By Elizabeth Lunday

More than a thousand years ago, women living in today’s northern Georgia and southeastern Tennessee formed networks of relationships that extended across these geographic regions and lasted for centuries. These relationships endured despite political turmoil in their society, providing their participants with a sense of stability and continuity.

That’s the picture painted by archaeologist Jacob Lulewicz of Washington University in St. Louis, who recently published a paper to this effect in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Lulewicz employed social network analysis, a method of studying the structure of social relationships, to arrive at this conclusion. Originally developed in the 1930s by psychologists, social network analysis has become an important tool in fields as disparate as computer science and economics, history and epidemiology.

It might sound like an obscure social science technique, but the public is now familiar with the concepts underlying social network analysis. In the 1990s, many people became fascinated with the idea of “six degrees of separation” that proposes any two people in the world are linked by six or fewer social connections. Then in the 2000s, social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter became ubiquitous. Archaeologists have discovered that social network analysis also has the potential to answer questions about the past, and Lulewicz is using it to look at the Mississippian people of Southern Appalachia from a new perspective.

Summer 2019 - Friends followers and retweets S1
COVER IMAGE: This bowl from northern Georgia with incised designs dates to the Late Mississippian period (A.D. 1450-1650). Incising became increasingly popular across both eastern Tennessee and northern Georgia after A.D. 1350, indicating the adoption of similar decorative practices across most of Southern Appalachia and the intensification of interactions between peoples living in the two regions. Nonetheless, incised vessels in northern Georgia were still primarily tempered with sand and grit while most incised vessels in eastern Tennessee were tempered with shell.
Credit: Jacob Lulewicz
Summer 2019 - Friends followers and retweets S3
This incised bowl was also found in northern Georgia. Though most of northern Georgia’s ceramics had sand and grit temper, with the increased use of incised decorations, more shell- tempered pottery also shows up in northern Georgia. This may be the result of more people from Tennessee moving into northern Georgia, or the adoption of new tempering technology by northern Georgia residents. The subtle difference in the specific designs incised into pottery, or the style of the incising, could also be indicative of social networks.
Credit: Jacob Lulewicz
Summer 2019 - Friends followers and retweets S6
Three examples of Etowah-style stamped sherds. These decorations—concentric diamonds with a bar or cross running through the center—were common during the 1050 – 1325  time period, as were other stamped designs. The decorations were carved into a wooden paddle that was used to stamp the vessel while the clay was still wet. | Credit: Courtesy of the Florida Museum of Natural History. Collections of the Anthropology Division of the Florida Museum of Natural History, FLMNH Cat. Nos. 92-35-00121 (9Ck1); 92-35-00118 (9Br1); 92-35-00117 (9Br1)   
Summer 2019 - Friends followers and retweets S7
These two sherds are examples of fine cord-marked ceramics. Cord-marked ceramics were more popular in eastern Tennessee than in northern Georgia.  |  Credit: Courtesy of the Florida Museum of Natural History. Collections of the Anthropology Division of the Florida Museum of Natural History, FLMNH Cat. Nos. 92-35-00090 (UID Site); 92-35-00089 (UID Site)


“Lulewicz is elegantly showing us how to document relationships between Mississippian societies in the Southeast, focusing on common artifacts made and used by most people, and not just the elaborate artifacts used by a few elites,” said archaeologist David Anderson, a Mississippian expert at the University of Tennessee. “As such, he is showing us new ways to explore life in the past that I predict will be widely adopted across the Southeast in the years to come.”

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SUMMER 2019 | Gone Missing

The following is an article from the Summer 2019 Issue of American Archaeology MagazineBecome a member to subscribe and read the full issue! 

By Wayne Curtis

COVER IMAGE: 1978 Moundville excavation  |  Credit: Vin Steponaitis

In March of 1980 a researcher named Margaret Ann Hardin went to the Erskine Ramsay Archaeological Repository at the Moundville Archaeological Park in Alabama to look at some ancient ceramics she’d been asked to study. But she couldn’t find them. So she called Vin Steponaitis, then a University of Michigan graduate student who had sorted through the collections the year before and in the process set aside about seventy or eighty boxes of Moundville pottery. “I had no idea of what was going on, and when I got down there a day or two later I realized that the boxes that she had wanted to look at were missing,” he said. “I had the inventory, so I knew exactly which boxes were missing and which pots  were missing.”

More than two dozen boxes of artifacts—nearly a quarter of Moundville’s vessels—had disappeared, including some of the collection’s most cherished items. The heist got a modest write-up in a scholarly journal, which included about thirty photos of some of the more prominent items, and word of it spread among insiders in the archaeological community.

Moundville | Credit: Jim Knight

But no public announcement was made by the university, no local newspaper story was written, no request that the pubic keep an eye out for the stolen artifacts was issued. Indeed, the theft remained largely unknown to the outside world until 2003, when Jim Knight, who was then the museum’s curator of Southeastern archaeology, contacted reporters and told all about the missing treasures. More than twenty years after it happened, the Moundville artifact theft at last made the national news.

And then… silence. There were no new leads about the missing artifacts. Many in the local archaeological community believed that the artifacts had long since found their way to one or more private collections, possibly overseas. That assumption persisted until last August, when the museum was informed of an unexpected phone call.

Moundville was a 300-acre Mississippian ceremonial center located in west-central Alabama, along the Black Warrior River. It was occupied from about A.D. 1000 to 1500. “It’s one of the most important archaeological sites in the South,” said Knight, who is now professor emeritus of anthropology and curator emeritus of American archaeology at the  University of Alabama, which administers Moundville. It’s also the largest Mississippian mound center in the South, home to thirty-two earthen mounds that ring a large plaza. It’s been a magnet for archaeological research from the nineteenth century to the present day.

Moundville’s golden era of exploration was arguably the 1930s, when archaeologists, with the help of workers from the Depression-era Civilian Conservation Corps, undertook major excavations that resulted in the “recovery of an immense collection of archaeological artifacts,” Knight said. The artifacts included a large number of intact earthenware items. The collection was cataloged and stored, but it wasn’t intensively studied by scholars until the 1960s and ‘70s, when a wave of graduate students analyzed much of it, resulting in dissertations and scholarly papers.

This was a busy time at Moundville. A  National Science Foundation-funded study of Moundville was underway involving a team of University of Michigan grad students, and other researchers were also coming and going from the repository. Investigators later found that at least twenty-seven  people held keys to the repository.

Examples of Stolen Vessels | Photos provided by: Vin Steponaitis

Examples of Stolen Vessels | Photos provided by: Vin Steponaitis

Examples of Stolen Vessels | Photos provided by: Vin Steponaitis

Examples of Stolen Vessels | Photos provided by: Vin Steponaitis

Examples of Stolen Vessels | Photos provided by: Vin Steponaitis

When the theft was discovered, the University of Alabama immediately launched an  investigation, which the FBI soon joined. Though FBI agents interviewed a number of people, they made no breakthroughs and the investigation soon went cold. If there was a silver lining to the burglary, it was that many of the artifacts had been well-documented:
Steponaitis had systematically photographed many of the items two years prior to the theft as part of his dissertation.

Why the museum and university declined to go public with the story prior to 2003 remains something of a mystery, though it could have been due to embarrassment. Knight was  hired as a senior research archaeologist about two years after the theft, so he doesn’t know the reason, but he said “there was some decision made not to publicize this by the University of Alabama.”

There’s little denying the theft was embarrassing. Whoever did it knew exactly what they were looking for. Knight said that an exhibition featuring the “best of the collection” had been staged four years prior to the theft. “And of those artifacts on display,” he said, “I calculated that about seventy percent were stolen.” (Although the repository contained artifacts from sites across Alabama, it appears that only Moundville items were taken.) That led to a conclusion that the burglary was almost certainly an inside job, undertaken by someone who knew the collection. What’s more, no sign of forced entry was found.

Knight had worked at Moundville earlier as a student, and he was well aware of the artifacts that had gone missing. The mystery of their disappearance was never far from his mind. Over time he would make inquiries among colleagues and the police if anything new had turned up. ”I started looking into it in great detail in the 1990s,” Knight said. When he asked university officials for the files on their investigation he learned, to his “great astonishment, there weren’t any,” he said. “Not a single thing.”

He also contacted the FBI, only to learn that the case been closed with no resolution after seven years; the interviews conducted in the wake of the theft had been discarded. “All I
could do was my own interviewing of people who had been around at the time,” said Knight.

Those interviews were of little use, so in 2003 he went public with what he knew, believing that might yield helpful information. Along with the local police and the university’s Office of Archaeological Research, Knight held a press conference, detailing what was known about the burglary for the first time. The Office of Archaeological Research also set up a website, posting the photos and descriptions of the missing pieces. “I thought we got some pretty good tips” he said. “And police followed up on several.” But nothing came of them.

Knight retired from the university four years ago, but the unresolved theft continued to vex him. Last year at a barbecue picnic held at Moundville, he put forth an idea: why not offer a reward for the return of any artifacts?

He asked for contributions, and some $15,000 was raised on the spot. He and other supporters formed the Associates for the Recovery of Moundville Artifacts, and they raised additional funds for the reward, bringing the total to $25,000. “One thing we didn’t do in 2003 was come up with a reward,” Knight said. “I really thought we should at least
give it a shot.” They held a press conference in May 2018 announcing the reward and they established a phone line for anonymous tips.

Then, in August of last year, the police department at the University of Alabama got a call from a local lawyer who was representing a client who wished to remain anonymous. The
lawyer requested a private meeting, and during the meeting he handed over three of the missing artifacts from the collection.

“They’re beautiful pieces,” said Alex Benitez, director of Moundville Archaeological Park. “It’s not only that they contain iconography, like the winged serpent, which are
important symbols for Moundville. But it also hints at the quality of the pieces that were taken.”

The pieces were in good condition. Some of the original museum labels were still affixed. “They were at least really well preserved from the time that they were taken,” Benitez
said. The lawyer did not request a reward, saying his client just wanted to return the pieces to the museum.

“The investigators at the University of Alabama have reopened the case and they are taking it very seriously,” said Knight. “At the same time, since it is an open investigation,
there is only a limited amount of information they can release about their progress.” While many people would like to know the identity of the person returning the pieces, the
lawyer invoked attorney-client privilege, and Knight didn’t know if the police were aware of the client’s identity.

“One doesn’t know the circumstances under which someone turned over the pots,” said Steponaitis, who is now a distinguished professor of archaeology and anthropology
at the University of North Carolina. “I’m not saying the person who turned them in was innocent, but I’m not saying they’re guilty. It’s up for the police to figure out.”

This suggests that all of the stolen artifacts hadn’t been immediately taken overseas. It’s possible that they were stashed in a barn or attic and more or less forgotten. “It
wouldn’t be all that surprising for someone to hide artifacts stolen from a well-known site for many years before attempting to sell them,” said Benitez. Some items could have gotten separated from the others, and then been sold or given away. “Over time those objects could have lost their connection to the theft,” he added. “This isn’t unusual in the collecting world, as antiquities get passed down from one generation to next.”

“That gives me great hope that the remainder may not have been dispersed or smuggled overseas,” agreed Knight. “So much time has passed since the burglary that the stolen artifacts, or a portion of them, may have passed to a new generation, perhaps one that has different values.” He added that “my feeling all along was that the collection
never went very far.”

The University of Alabama Police Department is continuing the investigation. The police department wouldn’t comment on the status of the investigation, but Monica G. Watts, the associate vice president for communications of the university’s Division of Strategic  Communications, stated in an email message that no additional artifacts have been recovered. “The police believe that portions of the collection have been separated,” she wrote. As for the identity of the lawyer and whether his client has been given amnesty, she responded, “The investigation continues, and those details are not publicly available at this time.”

“We do have high hopes that there’s a large quantity of them just stashed somewhere that one day will comback to us,” Benitez said. “We just want the history back.”

WAYNE CURTIS is a freelance journalist in New Orleans, a contributing editor at The Daily Beast, and the author of And a Bottle of Rum: A History of the New World in 10 Cocktails.


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Learn More about the Mesa Prieta Petroglyph Project

Learn more about the Archaeological Conservancy site, Wells Petroglyph Preserve in the recent article published by the Albuquerque Journal.  Read the article HERE.

From the article:
Amanda Fox, guide and Mesa Prieta Tour and Outreach Coordinator, points out the warrior with a shield. | Photo: Albuquerque Journal


Students help in protecting ancient rock art at Smith’s Family Preserve

A recent article published by the San Antonio Express News, discusses the importance of student volunteers in preserving the ancient rock art sites at Smith’s Family Preserve, owned by the Archaeological Conservancy.  Read the article HERE.

From the article:
In this May 3, 2019 photo, John McHugh, a science teacher at Blessed Sacrament Catholic School in Sandy, Utah, points out how a famed petroglyph being called the “birthing scene,” seen below, faces directly towards the Vernal Equinox while leading a group of fifth through eighth graders who are helping document rock art at the Adelbert Doyle…
Photo: Francisco Kjolseth, AP


Learn more about Fort Parker

A recent article published by the Livingston Enterprise, explores Crow tribal history at Fort Parker, a site acquired by the Archaeological Conservancy in 2016.  Read the full article by Joseph Bullington here.

From the article:
Photo by William Henry Jackson/courtesy of the Montana Historical Society. 
The caption of this historical photo reads, “Chiefs and head men at old Crow Agency on Yellowstone, 1871. Left to right: Poor Elk, Black Foot, Long Ears, He Shows His Face, and Old Onion.”


Smith Family Preserve Prepares for Fall Opening

The Smith’s Family Preserve completed the installation of their information kiosk on March 30.  The project was completed through the combined efforts of generous donors, volunteers, schools, and government agencies.

The Preserve would like thank the National Parks for designing the map showing the layout of the trails, and the generous volunteers and donors who brought the project to life.  A special thanks to Cannon Consultants for the design of the display panels and the interpretive brochure for the Preserve; Blake and Julie Smith for donating the majority of the materials and their work on the kiosk; Chris Merritt and Elizabeth Hora at State History for their help with the donation for the display and the development of an interpretive brochure; and, Jim Walker at the Conservancy office in Albuquerque, New Mexico, who provided funding for kiosk materials. The Preserve would also like to acknowledge Smith Volunteer, Gail Rudolph, who donated the petroglyph display that is now attached to the bottom of the kiosk. Gail developed and created the display to help in educating school children who visit the preserve.

The Preserve has completed the installation of their information kiosks in preparation for their opening this fall.  |  Photos courtesy of Smith's Family Preserve
The installation could not have been completed without all of the generous volunteers and donors.  |  Photos courtesy of Smith's Family Preserve
Panels donated by volunteer, Gail Rudolph, which she developed as an educational aid for future school groups visiting the park.  |  Photos courtesy of Smith's Family Preserve
Panels donated by volunteer, Gail Rudolph, which she developed as an educational aid for future school groups visiting the park.  |  Photos courtesy of Smith's Family Preserve

A second set of display panels, donated by State History, are to be placed outside of the park to generate interest within the local communities. The newly minted kiosk will be the starting point for public tours that are planned to begin this fall.

The Smith’s Family Preserve is a 196 acre preserve located in Cedar City, Utah, that was donated to the Archaeological Conservancy in 2013 in honor of the original owner, Adelbert Smith.  The Preserve contains 90,540 listings on the National Register of Historic Places, most notably elaborate and extensive rock art across the landscape dating back to the archaic period.  To find out more, see the full brochure.